VPP: Everything You Need to Know

Explore Vat Photopolymerization (VPP): Understand MSLA, DLS, DLP, SLA, LSPc, LCM, cDLM, HPS, LMM, and 2PP, how VPP revolutionizes additive manufacturing.

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Introduction to Vat Photopolymerization (VPP)

Vat Photopolymerization (VPP) is a cornerstone technology in the realm of additive manufacturing, revolutionizing how objects are printed in 3D. VPP technology is a broad term that encompasses several sub-technologies, each with unique features and applications. This comprehensive guide will delve into the nuances of VPP and its variants, comparing them with other 3D printing technologies to help you understand its significance in the 3D printing industry.

Understanding the Basics of VPP

What is VPP?

VPP is a 3D printing process that involves curing liquid photopolymer resins into solid plastics using ultraviolet (UV) light. This method is known for its precision and ability to produce smooth surfaces and intricate details.

The Different Technologies Under VPP

MSLA: Masked Stereolithography

MSLA uses an LCD screen to mask the UV light, allowing selective curing of the resin. It’s favored for its speed and uniform layer curing.

DLS: Digital Light Systems

DLS employs digital micromirror devices to direct UV light, offering high speed and complex geometry capabilities.

DLP: Direct Light Projection

In DLP, digital light projectors are used to cure the resin layer by layer, providing fast printing speeds and high detail.

SLA: Stereolithography

The pioneer of VPP, SLA uses a laser to trace and cure the resin. It’s renowned for its exceptional accuracy and finish quality.

LSPc: Lubricant Sublayer Photo-curing

LSPc introduces a lubricant layer to reduce the adhesive forces between the object and the tank, facilitating continuous printing and complex designs.

LCM: Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing

LCM specializes in producing ceramic parts, offering high resolution and material versatility.

cDLM: Continuous Digital Light Manufacturing

cDLM enhances the DLP process for continuous printing, reducing layer lines and increasing speed.

HPS: Hybrid PhotoSynthesis

HPS combines different light sources and techniques to optimize the curing process for varied applications.

LMM: Lithography-based Metal Manufacturing

LMM extends VPP to metal printing, allowing for the creation of complex metal parts with fine details.

2PP: Two Photon Polymerization

2PP utilizes two-photon absorption for ultra-high resolution, enabling the creation of nano-scale features.

Comparing VPP with Other 3D Printing Technologies

VPP vs. FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling)

FDM, the most common 3D printing technology, uses a filament of thermoplastic material. VPP, in contrast, offers higher resolution and smoother finishes than FDM but typically at a higher cost and with more limited material choices.

VPP vs. SLS (Selective Laser Sintering)

SLS uses a laser to sinter powdered material. While SLS is excellent for strong, functional parts and doesn’t require support structures, VPP excels in producing parts with finer details and smoother surfaces.

VPP vs. EBM (Electron Beam Melting)

EBM, used primarily for metal printing, melts metal powder using an electron beam. VPP, through LMM, also allows metal printing but focuses on fine detail and complex geometries, unlike the robust and dense parts typical of EBM.


What is the main advantage of VPP over other 3D printing technologies? VPP offers unparalleled precision and surface finish, ideal for intricate designs and smooth surfaces.

Can VPP be used for metal printing? Yes, through Lithography-based Metal Manufacturing (LMM), VPP can produce detailed metal parts.

Is VPP more expensive than FDM? Generally, VPP tends to be more expensive due to its higher precision and material costs.

What makes MSLA different from traditional SLA? MSLA uses an LCD to mask UV light, allowing for faster and more uniform curing than traditional SLA.

Can VPP produce large parts? While VPP is excellent for detail, it’s generally more suited for smaller parts due to its process limitations, non the less some manufactures offer printers with several cubic meters of print volume.


Vat Photopolymerization (VPP) is a versatile and precise technology that plays a pivotal role in the field of additive manufacturing. By understanding its various sub-technologies and how they compare to other 3D printing methods, users can better appreciate the capabilities and applications of VPP in modern manufacturing.

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