LMM: Everything You Need to Know

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Explore the world of Lithography-based Metal Manufacturing (LMM) and discover how it compares to other 3D printing technologies like VPP, MSLA, DLS, and SLA.

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Introduction to Lithography-based Metal Manufacturing (LMM)

In the ever-evolving world of 3D printing and additive manufacturing, Lithography-based Metal Manufacturing (LMM) stands out as a pioneering technology. Developed by Incus, LMM has revolutionized the way we approach metal printing, offering unique benefits and applications. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll delve into the specifics of LMM and compare it with other prominent 3D printing technologies such as Vat Photopolymerization (VPP), Masked Stereolithography (MSLA), Digital Light Synthesis (DLS), and more.

Understanding LMM: The Basics

What is LMM?

Lithography-based Metal Manufacturing is a cutting-edge 3D printing technology designed specifically for metal. It is based on a lithography process that utilizes a metal powder-binder mixture, offering high resolution and excellent material properties.

How Does LMM Work?

The LMM process involves spreading a thin layer of metal powder mixed with a binder onto a build platform. This layer is then selectively cured using a light source, creating a solid layer. The process repeats, building the object layer by layer.

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LMM vs. Other 3D Printing Technologies

Vat Photopolymerization (VPP)

VPP is a broader category of 3D printing that includes several technologies like SLA, DLP, and cDLM. Unlike LMM, VPP typically uses resin instead of metal powders. VPP is known for its fine details and smooth surface finishes but lacks the material diversity of LMM.

LMM vs. Masked Stereolithography (MSLA)

MSLA, a subset of VPP, uses an LCD screen to mask the light source, selectively curing the resin. While MSLA offers high speed and precision, it is primarily limited to resin-based materials, unlike LMM’s focus on metals.

LMM vs. Digital Light Synthesis (DLS)

DLS, another form of VPP, is known for its speed and consistent mechanical properties. However, LMM surpasses DLS in terms of the range of metal materials it can print.

LMM vs. Direct Light Projection (DLP)

DLP uses a digital light projector to cure photopolymer resin. It’s faster than traditional SLA but still falls behind LMM in terms of material versatility and the specific mechanical properties achievable with metals.

LMM vs. Stereolithography (SLA)

SLA is the oldest form of VPP, known for high accuracy and detail. However, it is limited to resin-based materials, whereas LMM offers the unique advantage of working with a variety of metals.

LMM vs. Lubricant Sublayer Photo-curing (LSPc)

LSPc is an advanced form of photopolymerization that introduces a lubricant layer to reduce peel forces. While innovative, it doesn’t offer the same metal printing capabilities as LMM.

LMM vs. Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing (LCM)

LCM is similar to LMM but focuses on ceramic materials. LCM is ideal for applications requiring ceramics’ unique properties, but for metal applications, LMM is more suitable.

LMM vs. Continuous Digital Light Manufacturing (cDLM)

cDLM enhances DLP by continuously curing the resin, allowing for faster print speeds. However, LMM still holds an edge in metal printing capabilities.

LMM vs. Hybrid PhotoSynthesis (HPS)

HPS combines different photopolymerization techniques for enhanced properties but doesn’t match LMM’s ability to print with metal materials.

LMM vs. Two Photon Polymerization (2PP)

2PP allows for extremely high-resolution printing at the micro-scale. While impressive in detail, it is more suited for specialized applications and does not compete with LMM’s metal printing capabilities.


What materials can LMM print with? LMM specializes in printing with a variety of metal materials.

How does LMM compare to SLA in terms of accuracy? LMM offers comparable accuracy to DLP, with the added benefit of printing in metal.

Is LMM suitable for large-scale manufacturing? Yes, LMM is scalable and suitable for both small and large-scale manufacturing needs.

Can LMM produce complex geometries? Absolutely, LMM excels at producing complex geometries and intricate details.

What industries benefit most from LMM? Aerospace, automotive, medical, and tooling industries greatly benefit from LMM’s capabilities.


Lithography-based Metal Manufacturing is a game-changer in the realm of 3D printing. Its ability to print with various metals, combined with high precision and scalability, makes it a superior choice for many industrial applications. While other technologies like VPP, MSLA, DLS, and SLA have their strengths, LMM’s specialization in metal printing sets it apart, offering unmatched possibilities in additive manufacturing.

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